Ebola screening will begin at London's Heathrow Airport on Tuesday, Health Secretary Jeremy Hunt says.
Passengers from at-risk countries will have their temperature taken, complete a risk questionnaire and have contact details recorded.
Mr Hunt said screening at Gatwick and Eurostar terminals would start in the coming week.
The Chief Medical Officer says the risk to the UK is low, but expects a "handful" of cases.
Mr Hunt said it was "genuinely very difficult" to predict an exact number of cases, but said the expected figure for the next three months was not in double figures.
In September, around 1,000 people arrived in the UK from Ebola-affected countries in West Africa.