LBW

Thursday, 27 August 2015

HOW TO PRODUCE LOCAL FLOATING FISH FEED



Most of fish feed pellet in market is
low in terms of water stability and
easily swell when it is immersed in
water. Thus, the soluble vitamins
and minerals will be easily leached
out from the pellet. These will lead to the nutrient deficiency and
environmental problems in fish
tanks or ponds. Therefore, a study
was conducted to minimize the
degree of swelling and mineral
leaching while the floating time is maximized. For these purpose
several formulations of fish feed
were made and tested. The
formulation was based on common
resources such as corn flour, soy
flour and tapioca flour. To get water stability which is better
floating time and lower leach
ability, palm oil stair in was added
as a main subject compound for
this study. Statistical method, D-
optimal crossed design of response surface methodology was used for the analysis and
optimization of the properties of
fish feed pellet produced. In the
statistical analysis, the physical properties such as degree of swelling, leaching and floating
ability were chosen as the
responses where as pellets
composition and processing
temperature as the independent
factors. The result shows there is a relationship between fish feed
formulation and properties of fish
feed pellet produced. The optimum
of the floating time, leach ability
and stability of fish feed pellet also
can be obtained.

LEARN HOW TO HATCH FISH EGG
AIM OF THE PRACTICAL
The major objective of the practical is to
(1)Empack the knowledge of artificial induced breeding to learners and beginers.
(2)For learners to know that is better and more reliable because (i) better rate of fertilization and hatching will be achieved.(ii) protection against enemies and unfavourable environmental condition.(iii) better condition for growth and survival.
PROCEDURE INVOLVED IN FISH BREEDING.
(1)selection of broodstock from fish pond.
(2)Inducing final maturation and ovulation with hormone treatment.
(3)Procurement of ripe eggs by stripping.
(4)Procurement of milt by dissection of male donor.
(5)Artificial fertilization.
(6)Rearing of lavae or fry.
SELECTION OF BROODSTOCK FROM FISH POND.
The broodstock was selected and kept in plastic tank filled with water. The female breeder showed the maturity by bringing out a brighter colour and the abdomen, was swollen, lighter brownish in colour, when applied pressure on the abdomen, some eggs quickly comout with light green and a dot in the middle.
In the male breeder, the genital pappillae was elongated. Dark and slightly swollen.
INDUCED FINAL MATURATION AND OVULATION WITH HORMONE.
On the next day, the breeder was broughtout of tank and placed on top of the table by 8:05am to weigh by the the use of weighing scale.
The male broodstock weighed 2.0kg
The female broodstock weighed 3.0kg.
The temperature of the environment is 28 degree cen.
The temperature of water 27 degree cen.
The female breeder was injected with ovaprim(1.5mm) dose by 8:12am intra muscularly at angle 45 degree above the lateral line and above the dorsal fin.
The latency period was 8 hours (time of injection and ovulation).
PROCUREMENT OF MILT BY DISSECTION OF A MALE DONOR.
The male was dissected and to obtained the tastes which are located at the dorsal part of abdominal cavity of the male. The milt was obtained from the tastes by cutting little incisions in the external part of the lobules. The milt was preserved temporaly in glass cup and covered.
PROCUREMENT OF THE RIP EGG BY STRIPPING.
The ovulated eggs in the female breeder was obtained when the eggs riped. The ovulation period reached by 5:15pm. The belly was thick and soft. Two person held the fish with wet towel to aviod injury to the fish. The ventral side of the fish was dried up with toilet tissue and gently pressed towards the genital pappillae to extrud the eggs.
ARTIFICIAL FERTILIZATION
We used dry method of fertilization by adding the milt on the stripped eggs and few drops saline solution to ensure proper mixing of the sexual product through gentle shaking of the bowel and stired.
INCUBATION AND HATCHING OF FRY
We washed the plastic bowel and filled close to the brim with clean water. The fertilized eggs were spread homogenously in a single layer on a kakaban (mosquito netting material placed on top of the water in bowel.
LARVAL REARING
We seperated the larvae from egg shell and unhatched eggs. The kakaban was removed which helped in seperating the lavae from the shell. The remaining unhatched eggs were removed by siphoning.
NURSING (FEEDING) FRY

FEASIBILITY STUDY ON FISH FARMING
Feasibility study on fish farming do vary due to the;
(1)location
(2)cost of laboure
(3)cost of materials
(4)cost of feeding
(5)cost of fingerling (fish seed)
(6) water
(7)Marketing
In carring out feasibility study in an area this conditions must be satisfied.

LOCATION
In fish farming the area or location plays important role in deciding the type of pond to be constructed. For example an area with swampy environment is useful in fish farming but the suitable pond to be constructed is earthen pond. When the site located for fish farm is swampy, earthen pond will be the most fitted. When the site located is not swampy but the soil has a high water retaining capacity, eathen pond can also be ideal for such site.
A bushy forest with lot of trees may cost a lot of money and must be avioded.if the chosen site has water, it will be of more advantage.
Eathen pond is more cheaper to construct and has high productivity in terms of fish culture. When there is a near by flowing stream close to the site can be diverted and as water source and can be built a flow through pond system which is more intensive and has high production level in terms of fast growing of the cultured fish.
CONCRETE POND
Concrete pond can be constructed or built in any chosen site apart from heavy swampy arear to aviod high cost in construction. In building or constructing concrete pond, the farmmer should make provision for bore hole for water supply or alternatively buy water. A little or total shade must be provided.
COST OF LABOURE
Cost of laboure varies as laboure can be cheaper at one arear than the other, and is very impotant in constructing earthen pond because tomuch laboure needed for excavation. Laboure must be involved and cost is very important to be considered during preparation of feasibility study.
COST OF MATERIALS
Cost of materials is very important hence pond can not stand without puting one material or the other together for example:
(1)cement,sand and gravel.
(2) inlets and outlets facilities such as: joints, valves,glues, pvc pipes, etc. The cost of all these must be considered must be considered during feasibility study.
COST FOR FEEDING
The cost of feeding varies depending on the quality of feed in consideration. Foreign feeds are more costly, example cupens is sold above 5,000 naira, while local feeds cost below 4,500 naira.
The cost of producing the feed locally which will still maintain the the high level crude protien equal to the foreign feed. KINGSWAY AGRO SERVICES CAN HELP OUT IN RENDERING SUCH SERVICE SUCH AS POND CONSTRUCTION, FEED FORMULATION, FINGERLINGS PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION AND PIGGERY HOUSE CONSTRUCTION.
MARKETING
Another important section of feasibility study is the marketing aspect. In fish business the size of the fish determines the market. Consumers and retailers like big fish than small fish when your fish grows big, the market will be looking for you. A farmer can also go into smoking his/her own fish to enhance its market hence most of the fish consumers likes smoked fish than fresh ones no mater the size of the fish.

CATFISH FINGERLINGS PRODUCTION IN NIGERIA
Fingerling Production Although some people operate
hatcheries on their farms and
produce fingerlings for stocking
into their food fish production
ponds, most farmers buy
fingerlings. Catfish hatcheries can be simple to complex in their
design. The design and intensity of
production depend upon the
market and objectives of the
operation. Fingerling markets may
include food-fish producers, recreational fishing and home-use
production. A potential fingerling
producer should study the market
to avoid economic losses because
of insufficient demand. Broodstock Selection As in other animal enterprises, the
quality and quantity of the young
produced are directly related to
the quality of the broodstock. For a
successful fingerling operation, use
the best broodstock available and provide proper care for it.
Broodstock selection factors
include: 1. Fish should be 3-10 pounds and 3-6
years of age. 2. Fish recently taken from the wild
should be avoided. 3. Fish from sources having a history
of catfish virus disease should be
avoided. 4. Fish should be full-bodied with no
visible signs of sores or
hemorrhages. 5. A ratio of about three females for
every two males is recommended. Determine the sex of each brooder
(Figure 1). Primary and secondary
sex traits are used to separate
males from females. Body shape
and color are examples of
secondary traits. Mature males usually have a larger, broader and
more angular head than females of
the same size. Near spawning time,
males develop muscle pads on the
head and become very dark grey
to black. Just before spawning, females have soft, swollen bellies
due to egg development. Never use secondary traits as the
only method to identify males and
females. These traits may not be
apparent in younger fish. The sex
should be confirmed by examining
the genitals. There are two openings on the belly. The opening
nearest the head is the anus and
the one nearest the tail is the
genital opening of both sexes. Just
before the spawning season,
female genitals are red, swollen and sometimes pulsating. In the
off-season, the area is oval and flat.
In the off-season, the male genital
is less oval than the females. Just
prior to the spawning season, a
swollen, nipple-like genital papilla may be seen on the males. Broodstock must be in good
condition for optimal spawning
success. Provide a quality ration
daily during warm weather. When
water temperatures are below
65°F, feed every other day at 1% of their body weight. At
temperatures below 55°F, fish may
not feed. Fish should gain about
50% of their body weight from one
spawning season to the next. Stocking weight of broodfish
should not exceed 800-1,200
pounds of fish per acre at any time
during the year. Broodstock with
deformities and other problems
should be sorted, culled and replaced each year. To avoid
possible loss of all brooders, keep
fish in more than one pond. Spawning Channel catfish spawning activity
begins in the spring when water
temperatures reach about 75°F.
Five pound and larger female
catfish spawn 2,000 to 3,000 eggs
per pound of body weight; smaller females, about 4,000 eggs per
pound of body weight (Figure 2). Place spawning containers in 2-3
feet of water, 1-10 yards apart,
when the water is about 75°F. The
containers can be wooden boxes,
ammo cans, drums, etc. They must
be large enough to accommodate the breeding pair. There are three methods of
producing catfish fry: Spawning and rearing in the
pond Spawning containers are placed in
the pond; brooders and fry are left
in the pond until harvest. This
method is not recommended
because the manager never knows
how many fish are present until harvest. Survival is usually poor
and the method is unreliable.

A PREPARED FEASIBILITY STUDY FOR CATFISH FARM IN NIGERIA
A feasibility study prepared for a catfish farm of capacity is 10,000 and fingerlings of high breed catfish where to be stocked. The expenses from pond contruction to marketing is in considered.
The farm is to have 10 concrete ponds of flow through system and each pond is to contains 1,000 stocked catfish.

Cost of constructing each pond is as follows.
Each pond is 3m x 2.5m by 1.4m, each pond consumes 210 blocks and each bag of cement for 30 blocks. Hence 210 x 10 = 2,100 blocks. 2,100/30 = 70 bags of cement needed. 70 x 200 = 140,000 naira.
4trips of sand used =700x4= 28,000 naira.
2trips of gravel = 32,000x 2= 64,000 naira.
Cost of labour =150,000 naira.
Cost of plumbing(inlet and outlet facility).=100,000.
Cost of bore hole =500,000 naira.
Cost of treatment= 50,000.
Cost of high breedfingerlings 30x10,000=300,000 naira.
Cost of feeding from day one to maturity stage is 200 bags of foreign feed = 1,000000 naira.
After the average weight of the fish was 1.7kg. And it was sold at 800 naira each. The output was 800 x 9800 fishes, due to 200 mortality.
800 x 9800= 7,840,000 naira.
Input is 3.4'million naira.'
The profit is 4.44,000 million naira after six months of culture.

Lobito Bencash Shittu

No comments :

Post a Comment